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can be observed in high elevation landscapes starting around 750 meters
above sea level. This forest is also called mossy forest since the
trunk and branches of trees are draped with mosses, liverworts, and
lichens. Many plants have small thick leaves which compose slowly,
especially at lower temperatures. As a result, the organic litter
accumulates; releasing little of its nutrients, and plant growth is
forests in Brunei Darussalam can only be found in Temburong district.
They are categorized into lower montane and upper montane types.
Mixed Lower Montane Forests
lower montane forests occur at elevations ranging 910 meters to 1,280
meters above sea level. Soils characteristics are sandy loam and clay,
with a development of a thin "mor" layer on the ridge. Vegetation is
moderately dense and composed of small to medium-size trees. Some
dipterocarps are still present mixed with oaks or 'mempening' (Lithocarpus spp., Quercus spp.) along with 'nyatoh' (Madhuca spp., Palaquium spp., and Payena spp.). The existence of the gymnosperm Podocarpus neriifolius can also be observed in the association.
montane forest can be found on broad ridges with moderate slopes with
an elevation of between 700 to 1,220 meters above sea level. The forest
is predominantly occupied by 'tulong' (Agathis endertii) in relatively sandy soil of medium depth, fine-textured, and with a thin mor layer.
Shorea coriacea Mix
forest mix can be found in localised areas and limited distribution
between 910 to 1,100 meters elevation. The soil structure is the same
as the 'tulong' type but occupied by two major species; 'meranti tangkai
panjang' (Shorea coriacea) and 'tulong' (Agathis endertii) , The two species do not overlap, with S. coriacea dominating the forests and occupying the ridges with shallow sandy soils that are probably highly leached.
Oak Forest (Upper Montane - Tall Facies)
forest structure is comprised mainly of branchy small trees (rarely
exceeding 40 cm diameter), and found on very steep terrain between 1,200
and 1,550 meters elevation. The soils are peaty and covered with a moss
layer. The understorey is dense and difficult to penetrate.
Rhododendron Mix (Upper Montane - Short Facies)
uppermost forest structure in Brunei Darussalam is found in elevations
ranging from 1,070 to 1,830 meters. Soils are skeletal with an exposed
peaty surface layer. Dense low vegetation includes such as Dacrydium beccarii, Phyllocladus hypophyllus, Syzygium bankase, and Calophyllum nodosum.
Rhodoendrons, are widespread and abundant. Pitcher plants are well
adapted in these forests and abound on forest floors, on shrubs or even
in the crown of trees. Pitcher plant species or 'sumboi-sumboi' such as Nepenthes tentaculata and N. stenophylla can be observed in lower elevations while N. lowii in higher elevations.
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